Introduction to Modafinil (Provigil)

Introduction to Modafinil (Provigil)
  • Modafinil (Provigil) is a stimulant-like drug manufactured by Cephalon, and is approved by the FDA for the treatment of narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Modafinil is a stimulant drug marketed as a ‘wakefulness promoting agent’ and is one of the stimulants used in the treatment of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is caused by dysfunction of a family of wakefulness-promoting and sleep-suppressing peptides, the orexins, whose neurons are activated by modafinil. The prexin neuron activation is associated with psychoactivation and euphoria. The exact mechanism of action is unclear, although in vitro studies have shown it to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine reuptake pump, and lead to an increase in extracellular dopamine. Modafinil activates glutamatergic circuits while inhibiting GABA.
  • Modafinil, like other stimulants, increases the release of monoamines but also elevates hypothalamic histamine levels, leading some researchers to consider Modafinil a “wakefulness promoting agent” rather than a classic amphetamine-like stimulant (as evidenced by the difference in c-fos distribution caused by modafinil as compared to amphetamine).
Brand v.s. Generic
  • A Name-Brand drug is marketed under a specific trade name by a pharmaceutical manufacturer. In most cases, Name-Brand drugs are still under patent protection, meaning the manufacturer is the sole source for the product but in many Countries around the world this is not the case and a generic alternative is readily available . A generic drug is made with the same active ingredients in the same dosage form as a brand name drug. The generic drug is therapeutically equivalent to the brand name drug but is sold under its chemical or “generic” name.
  • A generic drug contains the same active ingredients in the same dosage form as a brand name drug. The strength and purity of generic medications are strictly regulated. The FDA requires all generic manufacturers to demonstrate that a generic drug will have the same medical effect as its Name-Brand equivalent by measuring the rate and extent of drug absorption. The generic drug should treat your illness or condition with the same effectiveness and safety as its brand name equivalent. Generics have to meet the same rigorous requirements as Name-Brand drugs.
  • In most cases the cost of researching, developing and marketing a new drug – including the money spent advertising the product – are factored into the price of the branded drug. Generic manufacturers spend considerably less on development and promotion, and therefore can afford to sell their product for less money.
  • Some generic medicines are manufactured by the same pharmaceutical companies that make brand medicines; others are produced by pharmaceutical companies specializing in the manufacturing of generics. If they are from registered drug manufacturers, theoretically, all prescription drug manufacturers must meet rigid FDA, WHO and GMP approval.
  • Take Modafinil for example, in addition to the initial brand name Provigil (US, UK, Italy, Belgium) marketed by Cephalon, other trade names (either brand or generic) may be Vigil (Germany), Alertec (Canada), Modasomil (Switzerland), Vigicer (Argentina), Modavigil (Australia), Resotyl, Mentix, Alertex (Chile), Modalert (from Sun Pharma), Modapro (from Cipla), Modiodal (from Noventure, being marketed in France, Mexico, Turkey, Greece, Sweden, Denmark, Portugal), Provake, Modafil (from Intas), Naxelan, Vigia, Zalux, Sparlon, Modafinilo (Spanish), Modafinilum (Latin), Moderateafinil and Dea No. 1680. No prescription? Visit our pharmacies directory to find websites to buy without a prescription.
Consumers v.s. Affiliates (Network Marketers)
  • Anyone who feels like to buy dapoxetine is a consumer. If a consumer is not nor is interested in working online, he / she should be a pure consumer and is recommended to visit straight to the pharmacies and start shopping without joining our site as an affiliate.
  • If you happen to be a network marketer or is interested in making money by referring other people to buy medicines online, you have an alternative to become a member of our site (free to join). All you have to do is to spend minutes joining the programs as affiliates and fill up your own referring IDs respectively in your account at our site, and start to promote your own Buy Modafinil Online with all programs displaying your own referring IDs. We do the rest! It’s just this simple!
  • We won’t recommend you to become an affiliate if you aren’t or won’t be a serious internet marketer. All merchant sites set constraints of minimum payouts to affiliates. If you couldn’t meet the minimum payouts the commissions would still be kept by the merchant sites so nobody gets benefit but the merchants. If you let this happen, it’s a loss to both you and the hard working affiliate who brought you first time here.
Local v.s. Offshore Pharmacies
  • Due to domination of traditional distribution channels in different territories, the prices of same drugs may vary a lot in different countries.
  • For example, the majority of prescription medicines sold in the U.S. are manufactured at FDA-inspected facilities located in foreign countries. Any local company that implies or states that prescription drugs ordered by Americans from legitimate pharmacies located outside the US are less safe than if they had been manufactured domestically is not telling the truth… Not to mention, they are much CHEAPER!
  • In order to show a better picture that the world is much bigger and you could have better options through Internet, we list capitals of every independent country as follows… There’re much more countries and possibilities out there!
Capitals of Every Independent Country – the world is bigger than some people’s thoughts
  • Afghanistan – Kabul
    Albania – Tirane
    Algeria – Algiers
    Andorra – Andorra la Vella
    Angola – Luanda
    Antigua and Barbuda – Saint John’s
    Argentina – Buenos Aires
    Armenia – Yerevan
    Australia – Canberra
    Austria – Vienna
    Azerbaijan – Baku
    The Bahamas – Nassau
  • Bahrain – Manama
    Bangladesh – Dhaka
    Barbados – Bridgetown
    Belarus – Minsk
    Belgium – Brussels
    Belize – Belmopan
    Benin – Porto-Novo
    Bhutan – Thimphu
    Bolivia – La Paz (administrative); Sucre (judicial)
    Bosnia and Herzegovina – Sarajevo
    Botswana – Gaborone
    Brazil – Brasilia
    Brunei – Bandar Seri Begawan
    Bulgaria – Sofia
    Burkina Faso – Ouagadougou
    Burundi – Bujumbura
  • Cambodia – Phnom Penh
    Cameroon – Yaounde
    Canada – Ottawa
    Cape Verde – Praia
    Central African Republic – Bangui
    Chad – N’Djamena
    Chile – Santiago
    China – Beijing
    Colombia – Bogota
    Comoros – Moroni
    Congo, Republic of the – Brazzaville
    Congo, Democratic Republic of the – Kinshasa
    Costa Rica – San Jose
    Cote d’Ivoire – Yamoussoukro (official); Abidjan (de facto)
    Croatia – Zagreb
    Cuba – Havana
    Cyprus – Nicosia
    Czech Republic – Prague
    Denmark – Copenhagen
  • Djibouti – Djibouti
    Dominica – Roseau
    Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo
  • East Timor (Timor-Leste) – Dili
    Ecuador – Quito
    Egypt – Cairo
    El Salvador – San Salvador
    Equatorial Guinea – Malabo
    Eritrea – Asmara
    Estonia – Tallinn
    Ethiopia – Addis Ababa
  • Fiji – Suva
    Finland – Helsinki
    France – Paris
  • Gabon – Libreville
    The Gambia – Banjul
    Georgia – Tbilisi
    Germany – Berlin
    Ghana – Accra
    Greece – Athens
    Grenada – Saint George’s
    Guatemala – Guatemala City
    Guinea – Conakry
    Guinea-Bissau – Bissau
    Guyana – Georgetown
  • Haiti – Port-au-Prince
    Honduras – Tegucigalpa
    Hungary – Budapest
  • Iceland – Reykjavik
    India – New Delhi
    Indonesia – Jakarta
    Iran – Tehran
    Iraq – Baghdad
    Ireland – Dublin
    Israel – Jerusalem*
    Italy – Rome
  • Jamaica – Kingston
    Japan – Tokyo
    Jordan – Amman
  • Kazakhstan – Astana
    Kenya – Nairobi
    Kiribati – Tarawa Atoll
    Korea, North – Pyongyang
    Korea, South – Seoul
    Kosovo – Pristina
    Kuwait – Kuwait City
    Kyrgyzstan – Bishkek
  • Laos – Vientiane
    Latvia – Riga
    Lebanon – Beirut
    Lesotho – Maseru
    Liberia – Monrovia
    Libya – Tripoli
    Liechtenstein – Vaduz
    Lithuania – Vilnius
    Luxembourg – Luxembourg
  • Laos – Vientiane
    Latvia – Riga
    Lebanon – Beirut
    Lesotho – Maseru
    Liberia – Monrovia
    Libya – Tripoli
    Liechtenstein – Vaduz
    Lithuania – Vilnius
    Luxembourg – Luxembourg
  • Macedonia – Skopje
    Madagascar – Antananarivo
    Malawi – Lilongwe
    Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur
    Maldives – Male
    Mali – Bamako
    Malta – Valletta
    Marshall Islands – Majuro
    Mauritania – Nouakchott
    Mauritius – Port Louis
    Mexico – Mexico City
    Micronesia, Federated States of – Palikir
    Moldova – Chisinau
    Monaco – Monaco
    Mongolia – Ulaanbaatar
    Montenegro – Podgorica
    Morocco – Rabat
    Mozambique – Maputo
    Myanmar (Burma) – Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (administrative)
  • Namibia – Windhoek
    Nauru – no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
    Nepal – Kathmandu
    Netherlands – Amsterdam; The Hague (seat of government)
    New Zealand – Wellington
    Nicaragua – Managua
    Niger – Niamey
    Nigeria – Abuja
    Norway – Oslo
  • Oman – Muscat
  • Pakistan – Islamabad
    Palau – Melekeok
    Panama – Panama City
    Papua New Guinea – Port Moresby
    Paraguay – Asuncion
    Peru – Lima
    Philippines – Manila
    Poland – Warsaw
    Portugal – Lisbon
  • Qatar – Doha
  • Romania – Bucharest
    Russia – Moscow
    Rwanda – Kigali
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis – Basseterre
    Saint Lucia – Castries
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – Kingstown
    Samoa – Apia
    San Marino – San Marino
    Sao Tome and Principe – Sao Tome
    Saudi Arabia – Riyadh
    Senegal – Dakar
    Serbia – Belgrade
    Seychelles – Victoria
    Sierra Leone – Freetown
    Singapore – Singapore
    Slovakia – Bratislava
    Slovenia – Ljubljana
    Solomon Islands – Honiara
    Somalia – Mogadishu
    South Africa – Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judiciary)
    Spain – Madrid
    Sri Lanka – Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative)
    Sudan – Khartoum
    Suriname – Paramaribo
    Swaziland – Mbabane
    Sweden – Stockholm
    Switzerland – Bern
    Syria – Damascus
  • Taiwan – Taipei
    Tajikistan – Dushanbe
    Tanzania – Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (legislative)
    Thailand – Bangkok
    Togo – Lome
    Tonga – Nuku’alofa
    Trinidad and Tobago – Port-of-Spain
    Tunisia – Tunis
    Turkey – Ankara
    Turkmenistan – Ashgabat
    Tuvalu – Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
  • Uganda – Kampala
    Ukraine – Kyiv
    United Arab Emirates – Abu Dhabi
    United Kingdom (UK) – London
    United States of America – Washington D.C.
    Uruguay – Montevideo
    Uzbekistan – Tashkent
  • Vanuatu – Port-Vila
    Vatican City (Holy See) – Vatican City
    Venezuela – Caracas
    Vietnam – Hanoi
  • Yemen – Sanaa
  • Zambia – Lusaka
    Zimbabwe – Harare

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