When Axel Unterbeck, the president and the supervisor of studies of pharmaceutical company Memory Pharmaceuticals, showed me stretched in the north of state New Jersey extensive possession, hardly probable not it finished each piece of our long excursion by words: ” Top-level! ” And in electrophysiological laboratory where researchers study influence potential ” stimulators of memory ” on separate neurones and sections of a brain of animals, and in a vivarium where preparations are tested on adult rodents, and in halls of a pharmakokinetics where incessantly clicking and automatic devices tirelessly analyze blood samples of animals and people, everywhere – ” Top-level! “.
In the beginning of 2003 company Memory Pharmaceuticals has started check on safety of the preparation intended for improvement of memory and cerebration, – bonds under name MEM 1003. This substance regulating transport of ions of calcium in neurones, is called to restore calcium equilibrium in cells of a brain at Alzheimer’s disease, feebly marked deterioration of cerebration or ” a vascular dementia “. ” By way of a pharmakokinetics and toxicologies of test pass extremely successfully, – speaks Axel Unterbeck. – For people substance completely safely “. However more steadfast attention of experts involves in itself other preparation of the company – bond MEM 1414. It is capable to activate a molecular way which plays a key role during consolidation of memory – transformation of short-term sensations and skills into traces of a long-term memory. The major participation in this process accepts the fiber which has received name CREB.
In the middle of 1990th T.Talli and Jerry Yin have genetically designed a special line of fruit front sights with really phenomenal photographic memory: insects are capable to be trained to carry out the certain tasks and to remember the produced skills during one experimental session whereas their “normal” relatives need for this purpose 10 sessions of training. Scientists have achieved such amazing improvement of memory due to activation of the unique gene under name CREB. As have shown researches when animals study to carry out any task and remember formed skill, the synapses responsible for formation of a trace of memory, are reconstructed and amplify as a result of the process demanding activation of genes. Appeared, that formation of a trace of memory is accompanied by education in a cell of the molecule – intermediary. This molecule in turn “starts” education of fiber which contacts a nervous cell. In result the whole set of the genes responsible for synthesis of fibers which “complete” synapses will be activated and by that raise their efficiency. This process also underlies consolidation of a trace of memory. Fiber “Starting” it has received difficult name AMP response element binding protein (CREB) – the fiber contacting a dependent element. The above level CREB in a neurone, the occurs consolidation of memory faster. So business at molluscums, fruit front sights and mice, at least, is. And what at the person?
Opinion, that CREB – the best basis for creation of ” stimulators of memory “, part is far from being all scientists. The choice of this gene is not so justified from the biological point of view, is especial if the question is about mammal. In fact CREB is in an organism everywhere. Some researchers even believe, that new preparations appear no more effective, than a coffeine. Besides CREB – not unique way of a manipulation memory. So, known biologist Joe Z. Tsien already mentioned by us studies receptor CREB present only in a forward brain, and the attention of company Cortex Pharmaceuticals is focused on other system. ” Frankly speaking, our knowledge it is insignificant are small, – admits Joe Z. Tsien. – we do not know neither principles of work of memory, nor a set of operations carried out by it. Much is known to us about genes, but precise representation about their functions is not present, it, in my opinion, and became the basic problem of all therapeutic researches “.
“Scientists one worries only: to achieve, that these preparations worked, – already long time a showing heightened interest to questions of social consequences of scientific development admits T.Talli. – whether them Will use not to destination if their clinical efficiency will prove to be true? I think, yes. In fact these medicines are capable to improve and the impellent skills necessary, for example, for game on a piano or mastering by a foreign language “. Eventually not to destination it began to be used and viagra, but it have not refused, just as have not ceased to accept Ritalin and amphetamines. However the selftreatment is dangerous, since can cause unexpected side effects. The person, for example, can have unknown alienations.
From epoch-making event when medicines of new generation will reach people, we are separated with five – ten years. And before ” clever tablets ” will get in drugstores, we should learn about them mass of interesting things. But by the small incident which has occurred in Princeton university where I visited Joe Z. Tsien, all can develop differently. When the scientist showed me a vivarium where well-known “mice – intellectuals” genetically designed by it contain, by us has passed the laboratory assistant. In an arm it carried the most primitive mousetrap in which two unfortunate animals sat. Joe Z. Tsien carried out a view of rodents ” with the raised level of abilities “, has shaken a head and with a sigh has made: ” Not such they and clever”.